Call us

Tel: +370 5 205 26 06

Tel: +370 659 57933



Eczema is a dermatological condition described by inflammation of skin. It usually appears as itchy red rash.

Terms “eczema” and “dermatitis” can be used interchangeably. These two terms have the same meaning and both mean skin inflammation. Eczematous rash is caused by the same reasons as dermatitis rash.

Eczema causes

There are many different types of eczema and they are provoked by different factors. The most common type of eczema is irritant contact dermatitis and this particular disease can be caused by:

  • Physical factors, such as ultraviolet light, ionization, x – ray
  • Chemical compounds, such as acid, base, organic compounds, acetone
  • Phototoxic substances, e. g.  plants and drugs;
  • Aerogenic compounds (e.g. dust, steam).

Another common type of eczema is allergic contact dermatitis. The cause of this eczema type is different from irritant contact dermatitis. While irritant contact dermatitis develops shortly after exposure to irritating substances, it takes at least several exposures to allergens for allergic contact dermatitis to manifest. There are about 3000 compounds in our environment that can cause allergic contact dermatitis. These compounds are low molecular weight antigens called haptens. They can be found in our work and home environment, cosmetics, jewelry. Most common allergens that cause contact allergic dermatitis are:

  • Nickel;
  • Perfume;
  • Peru balsam;
  • Tiomersal;
  • Mercury;
  • Neomycin;
  • Parabens;
  • Cobalt.

Very small concentration of mentioned allergens is enough to cause allergic contact dermatitis.

Different antigens cause allergic contact dermatitis in different body parts. Antigens in shampoo, conditioner, hair spray, hair clips and hair dye usually cause allergic contact eczema on scalp. Makeup and hair care products, sunblock, nail polish and aerogenic substances can cause eczema on face and around eyes. Jewelry, clothes and cosmetic substances often cause eczema on arms.

Atopic dermatitis is another form of eczema. Many factors can influence this condition. They are divided into 3 main groups:

  • Immune;
  • Genetic;
  • Environmental.

Online registration

Chronic inflammation of skin can be provoked by irritants, Staphylococcus aureus infection, autoantigens, neuropeptides. Violation of skin protective barrier is also an important causative circumstance.

Diaper dermatitis is common in newborns and very young children, usually 2 - 4 months old. It is a specific form of irritant contact dermatitis, which is caused by mechanical diaper effect, moisture environment, urine particles and secondary infection.

Dyshidrotic and seborrheic dermatitis are both caused by currently unknown factors.

The most common adult eczema types are irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis usually manifests early in childhood and often is accompanied by bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis.

How to cure eczema?

Even though there are many types of this disease, eczema treatment has some universal principles. Usually eczema treatment combines several methods. It may include:

  1. Systemic treatment
  • Anti-inflammatory medications, such as glucocorticosteroids
  • Antihistamines to alleviate allergy symptoms
  • Immunosuppressant drugs in extremely severe and resistant cases
  • Antibacterial treatment in case of secondary infections
  1. Phototherapy:
  • UVB 311 nm,
  • KOMBI UVA/UVB 311 nm,
  • PUVA).
  1. Local treatment
  • Anti-inflammatory medications such as topical glucocorticosteroids
  • Immunomodulators
  • Antibacterial treatment such as topical antibiotics
  1. Diet
  2. Basic treatment (emollients). Skin moisturizers are very important for symptomatic relief of eczema.
  3. Elimination of allergens or provocative factors from environment

To sum up, efficacy of eczema treatment depends on body’s individual properties. In every case, it is worth consulting a dermatologist to receive the best skincare plan for your needs.